Wee Yong, PhD, discovered that imperative immune cells in the brains of cancer patients are compromised. Upon identifying this anomaly, researchers at the Southern Alberta Cancer Research Institute developed a drug that can re-activate those immune cells, thereby reducing tumor growth and extending lifespan in mouse models. The human brain uses microglia, a specialized brain cell, to defend against injury and infection. This study, published in Nature Neuroscience, demonstrated for the first time that these immune system cells are compromised in living brain tumor patients, causing tumor proliferation. Yet, upon administering Amphotericin B, the microglia were re-activated and halted the progression of tumor growth.